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Clyne 51ef859f60 Update '01-adc/README.md' 11 months ago
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README.md Update '01-adc/README.md' 11 months ago
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README.md

1. Reading ADC inputs through polling

ADC configuration and initialization

1. Starting the ADC clock

First, the ADC clock's source must be selected since it defaults to none. We will use the system clock as our source; if we were using the PLL, we could use one of the PLL's "R" clocks instead.

RCC->CCIPR &= ~(RCC_CCIPR_ADCSEL_Msk);
RCC->CCIPR |= 3 << RCC_CCIPR_ADCSEL_Pos; // Select system clock for ADC clock

Then, we simply enable the ADC clock through the AHB:

RCC->AHB2ENR |= RCC_AHB2ENR_ADCEN;

2. Power on the ADC's internal voltage regulator

The ADC's internal regulator must be powered on before enabling the ADC. If the ADC is disabled later, this regulator can be turned off to save power.

ADC1->CR = 0; // The CR register must be zero before setting ADVREGEN
ADC1->CR = ADC_CR_ADVREGEN;

The internal regulator should be given time to warm up after turning on so that its output stabilizes. A delay of around 20 microseconds should be enough; a very crude delay function is implemented in the example.

3. Calibrating the ADC

The ADC should be calibrated when first powered on. The calibration process is something internal (undocumented) to the microcontroller, so we just tell the calibration to begin and wait for it to finish.

The microcontroller has the option to do a differential calibration, but we will skip this since we are only using single-ended channels. This is also a good time to select single-ended channels for our conversions.

ADC1->DIFSEL = 0; // Clear DIFSEL for single-ended conversions.

ADC1->CR &= ~(ADC_CR_ADCALDIF); // Select single-ended calibration
ADC1->CR |= ADC_CR_ADCAL;       // Begin calibration
while ((ADC1->CR & ADC_CR_ADCAL) != 0); // Wait for ADCAL to clear

If execution gets stuck in the while loop, there is a chance that the ADC's clock was incorrectly configured.

4. Enable the ADC

Now, the ADC is ready to be enabled:

ADC1->CR |= ADC_CR_ADEN;
while ((ADC1->ISR & ADC_ISR_ADRDY) == 0); // Wait for the ADC to be ready

Prepare GPIO pin for analog reading

We will use pin PC0 since it is wired to the first ADC channel. See the STM32L476RG datasheet for a table of connections between pins and ADC channels.

Make sure the GPIO port's clock is enabled:

RCC->AHB2ENR |= RCC_AHB2ENR_GPIOCEN;

Then, set the GPIO pin's mode to analog input:

GPIOC->MODER |= 3 << GPIO_MODER_MODE0_Pos;

Finally, STM32L47x/L48x processors require an additional register setting to complete the pin's connection to the ADC. We set bit zero for ADC channel one:

GPIOC->ASCR |= 1 << 0;

Prepare and execute the analog conversion

Conversion sequencing

First we need to set up the ADC's conversion sequence. The ADC can take multiple conversions in a row, with channels arranged in order according to the SQR registers.

We are doing a single conversion of a single channel, channel one. So, we write a 1 for the first sequence channel. By setting the whole register with =, we clear the L field of the register to zero; this sets the sequence length to one.

ADC1->SQR1 = 1 << ADC_SQR1_SQ1_Pos;

Other configuration

The CFGR register can be used to adjust the ADC's resolution (8 to 12 bits).

The CFGR2 register can be configured if hardware oversampling will be used.

The SMPR registers can be configured to select sampling times. We will leave this unconfigured to use the default (fastest) time.

The OFR register can be configured to have an offset subtracted from the analog reading during conversion.

Running the conversion

Below are the steps for completing a single channel conversion. In the example, this code is contained within the adc_read function.

Set CFGR for single conversion, then initiate the conversion:

ADC1->CFGR &= ~(ADC_CFGR_CONT);

ADC1->CR |= ADC_CR_ADSTART;

The ADC will set the end-of-conversion (EOC) bit of its status register ISR once the conversion is complete. If we were using interrupts, we could write and enable an interrupt handler to detect this; instead, we will simply poll the register.

Once the EOC bit is set, we need to clear it before the next conversion.

while ((ADC1->ISR & ADC_ISR_EOC) == 0);
ADC1->ISR &= ~(ADC_ISR_EOC);

The conversion result is now available in the data register DR.

Getting feedback with an LED

We will use the Nucleo's on-board LED to produce feedback on our ADC reading. The below code will turn the LED on or off depending on if the ADC reading goes above a certain threshold.

Configure pin PA5 for output to control the LED:

RCC->AHB2ENR |= RCC_AHB2ENR_GPIOAEN;
GPIOA->MODER &= ~(GPIO_MODER_MODE5_Msk);
GPIOA->MODER |= 1 << GPIO_MODER_MODE5_Pos;

Now, we run a simple loop. Our threshold will be 2048, half of the ADC's 12- bit range. With the default voltage reference of 3.3V, the threshold will be equal to 3.3V * 2048 / (2^12 - 1) = 1.65V.

while (1) {
    unsigned int reading = adc_read();

    if (reading > 2048)
        GPIOA->BSRR |= 1 << 5;
    else
        GPIOA->BRR |= 1 << 5;
}